The New Cambridge History Of India
The new history is being published as a series of individual works by single authors and, unlike the original, does not form a connected narrative. Also unlike the original, it only covers the period since the fourteenth century. The whole has been planned over four parts:
The New Cambridge History of India
Although the original Cambridge History of India, published between 1922 and 1937, did much to formulate a chronology for Indian history and describe the administrative structures of government in India, it has inevitably been overtaken by the mass of new research published over the last sixty years. Designed to take full account of recent scholarship and changing conceptions of South India's historical development, The New Cambridge History of India is published as a series of short, self-contained volumes, each dealing with a separate theme within an overall four-part structure.
By the end of the century, however, opinions were changing. India seemed to be suffering not merely from an unfortunate recent history but from deeply ingrained backwardness. It needed to be 'improved' by firm, benevolent foreign rule. Various strategies for improvement were being discussed. Property relations should be reformed to give greater security to the ownership of land. Laws should be codified on scientific principles. All obstacles to free trade between Britain and India should be removed, thus opening India's economy to the stimulus of an expanding trade with Europe. Education should be remodelled. The ignorance and superstition thought to be inculcated by Asian religions should be challenged by missionaries propagating the rationality embodied in Christianity. The implementation of improvement in any systematic way lay in the future, but commitment to governing in Indian ways through Indians was waning fast.
Professor Peter Marshall is Professor Emeritus at King's College, London University, where he was Rhodes Professor of Imperial History from 1981 until his retirement in 1993. He is the author of a number of books on the early history of British India and was editor of The Cambridge Illustrated History of the British Empire (Cambridge, 1996; paperback edition, 2001) and of the second volume, The Eighteenth Century (Oxford, 1998) of The Oxford History of the British Empire. He was President of the Royal Historical Society, 1996-2000.
Thus British Indian history in the 19th century is often divided into two halves, separated by the great watershed of 1857: an age of ill-considered reform, followed by an age of iron conservatism. Conservatism was eventually to provoke a different form of reaction, the nationalism out of which modern India was to be born.
There are, however, serious difficulties in any interpretation of 19th-century Indian history that divides it into an age of reform that gave way under the shock of rebellion to an age of conservatism. This may in a very rough sense reflect the intentions of India's British rulers, but what the British intended and what they were able to achieve were often very different things. Outcomes depended as much on the inclinations and efforts of Indian people as on the initiatives of their rulers.
The British Empire and Commonwealth Museum, Clock Tower Yard, Temple Meads, Bristol, BS1 6QH, will open its galleries on 26 September 2002. There will be a temporary exhibition, called 'India: Pioneering Photographs, 1850-1900' during 2002. Meanwhile, inquiries to see the collections of photographs and documentary archives or to use the oral history archive are welcome (telephone: 0117 925 4980).
Hardiman, David (2009)The mission hospital 1880-1960. In: From western medicine to global medicine : the hospital beyond the West. New perspectives in South Asian history (27). New Delhi: Orient BlackSwan. ISBN 9788125037026
Hardiman, David (2006)Christian therapy : medical missionaries and the adivasis of western India, 1880-1930. In: Healing bodies, saving souls : medical missions in Asia and Africa. The Wellcome series in the history of medicine, Clio medica (80). Amsterdam ; New York: Rodopi, pp. 137-167. ISBN 9789042021068
Hardiman, David, ed. (2006)Healing bodies, saving souls : medical missions in Asia and Africa. The Wellcome series in the history of medicine, Clio medica (80). Amsterdam ; New York: Rodopi. ISBN 9789042021068
Hardiman, David (2000)Review of The new Cambridge history of India, Volume 4, Part 4 : an agrarian history of South Asia, by Ludden, D. American Historical Review, Vol.105 (No 5). pp. 1718-1719. ISSN 0002-8762
Hardiman, David (1999)Original imperial greens. Review of Nature and the Orient : the environmental history of South and Southeast Asia, by Grove, R., Damodarnan, V. and Sangwan, S., eds. Times Higher Education Supplement . ISSN 0049-3929
Hardiman, David (1995)Small-dam systems of the Sahyadris. In: Nature, culture, imperialism : essays on the environmental history of South Asia. Studies in social ecology and environmental history . Delhi ; Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 185-209. ISBN 0195634284
Hardiman, David (1985)From custom to crime: the politics of drinking in colonial South Gujarat. In: Subaltern studies IV : writings on South Asian history and society. Delhi: Oxford University Press, pp. 165-228. ISBN 0195618408
Hardiman, David (1984)The communal base to Indian nationalism. Review of: Essays in the social history of modern India, by Kumar, R. Economic & Political Weekly, Vol.19 (No.11). pp. 455-457. ISSN 0012-9976
That barrier removed, political economy becomes something which never is, but is always to be, done; growing with the growing knowledge of the race, changing, as man, its subject-matter, changes; something which, in the nature of the case, must be the work, not of one mind but of many; something to which every man in his place may contribute, to which all classes and races of men must contribute, if the full truth is to be discovered; something to which every clime and every age bring gifts all their own; something to which the history of institutions, the course of invention, the story of human experience are not pertinent only but essential.
: The history of the Erie Railway has been a checkered one. Chartered in 1832, and organized in 1833.... Its financial troubles had, however, as yet only begun, for in 1859 it could not meet the interest on its mortgages, and passed into the hands of a receiver. In 1861 an arrangement of interests was effected, and a new company was organized. The next year the old New York & Erie Railroad Company disappeared under a foreclosure of the fifth mortgage, and the present Erie Railway Company rose from its ashes. Meanwhile the original estimate of three millions had developed into an actual outlay of fifty millions; the 470 miles of track opened in 1842 had expanded into 773 miles in 1868; and the revenue, which the projectors had "confidently" estimated, at something less than two millions in 1833, amounted to over five millions when the road passed into the hands of a receiver in 1859, and in 1865 reached the enormous sum of sixteen millions and a half. The road was, in truth, a magnificent enterprise, worthy to connect the great lakes with the great seaport of America. Scaling lofty mountain ranges, running through fertile valleys and by the banks of broad rivers, connecting the Hudson, the Susquehanna, the St. Lawrence, and the Ohio, it stood forth a monument at once of engineering skill and of commercial enterprise.
The series of events in the Erie history which culminated in the struggle about to be narrated may be said to have had its origin some seventeen or eighteen years before, when Mr. Daniel Drew first made his appearance in the Board of Directors, where he remained down to the year 1868, generally holding also the office of treasurer of the corporation. Mr. Drew is what is known as a self-made man. Born in the year 1797, as a boy he drove cattle down from his native town of Carmel, in Putnam County, to the market of New York City, and, subsequently, was for years proprietor of the Bull s Head Tavern. Like his contemporary, and ally or opponent, as the case might be, Cornelius Vanderbilt, he built up his fortunes in the steamboat interest, and subsequently extended his operations over the rapidly developing railroad system. Shrewd, unscrupulous, and very illiterate, a strange combination of superstition and faithlessness, of daring and timidity, often good-natured and sometimes generous, he ever regarded his fiduciary position of director in a railroad as a means of manipulating its stock for his own advantage.
Panikkar returned to India in 1918. His ship was hit by a German torpedo but the passengers escaped and were taken by another ship. He joined Aligarh Muslim University in 1919 to teach history and political science. He became the first editor of the Hindustan Times from 1924. Panikkar then decided to read for the Bar and returned to England in 1925 for a year. He enrolled in Middle Temple.
Kuruvila Zachariah was an Indian Christian who having studied at Christian College, Madras, was sent to England in 1912 on a Government of India scholarship. Having arrived in London in September 1912, he visited Thomas Arnold, the education advisor for Indian students. He was advised that he had a place to read history at Keble College, Oxford, but upon consideration took up a place at Merton College instead.
Zachariah attended Oxford Union debates and became involved with the University Christian Union. He did not join the Oxford Majlis because they met on Sunday evenings. In 1915, Zachariah received a first-class degree in history. Zachariah applied for teaching posts in India from England, taking advice from the India Office about entry into the Indian Educational Service. He was offered a position at Presidency College, Calcutta, and so returned to India in November 1915. 041b061a72